After reading this chapter, you should be able to:

outline the locations and properties of arterial baroreceptors (16.1);

state the reflex effects of baroreceptors and their role in hypovolaemia (16.2);

outline the properties and roles of veno-atrial stretch receptors (16.3, 16.4);

state the neural origin of ischaemic cardiac pain (16.3);

outline the reflex responses to a rise in central venous pressure (CVP) and fluid volume in humans (16.4);

explain the role of the kidneys in long-term blood pressure (BP) regulation (16.5);

outline the location and role of peripheral arterial chemoreceptors (16.6);

state the cardiovascular reflex evoked by lung stretch receptors (16.6);

outline the role of muscle work receptors during exercise (16.6);

list the roles of medulla oblongata in cardiovascular control (16.7);

define the alerting response and central command (16.8);

explain how inspiration affects vagal outflow to the pacemaker (16.9).