After reading this chapter you should be able to:

state the significance of the fibrotendinous ring, the four valves, papillary muscle, ventricle wall thickness and the

pacemaker (2.1);

list the four phases of the ventricular cycle and related valve positions (2.2);

sketch the changes in atrial and ventricular pressures over the cardiac cycle (Figure 2.5);

draw a ventricular pressure-volume loop, labelling each side and corner (Figure 2.6);

define ejection fraction and give typical values (2.2); give the relative timings of diastole and systole at rest and during maximal exercise (2.2 and 2.4);

state the origins of (1) the apex beat (2.1); (2) the heart sounds (2.5); (3) cardiac murmurs (2.5); outline briefly the nature and use of echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, nuclear cardiology, cardiac computer tomography and cardiac catheterization (2.6).