DOI link for Characterization Facilities
Characterization Facilities book
A microelectronic/nanoelectronic characterization laboratory is furnished with many equipment such as a four-point probe, an X-ray diffractometer, scanning and tunneling electron microscopes, a scanning tunneling microscope (STM), and an atomic force microscope (AFM), to name a few of the extensive characterization and instrumentation facilities that are routinely used to monitor processes, check quality, and take remedial actions as deemed necessary. A bird’s eye view of the characterization laboratory is provided. Principles and operating modes of the STM/AFM are discussed.