## ABSTRACT

All alternative interpretations have at their roots some form of disgust at the Copenhagen–Gottingen philosophy, and all have a desire to seek an alternative truth for the understanding of quantum mechanics. The alternative view is of an intrinsic reality prior to the measurement, as discussed by A. Einstein, and by most of the founders of the wave theory of quantum mechanics. A key point of Neils Bohr’s arguments with Einstein, particularly with regard to the Einstein–B. Podolsky–N. Rosen type of experiments, was that one could not make multiple measurements on the same particle, or quantum system. In his view, the measurement itself defined the quantum system. With the arrival of the Schrodinger equation, quantum mechanics had a causal, deterministic equation of motion for the wave function. Perturbation theory, based upon the Schrodinger equation, provided transition details that undermined the assertions of quantum jumps.