This conclusion presents some closing thoughts on the key concepts discussed in the preceding chapters of this book. The book shows how the various unique properties of nanoparticles may be exploited to provide innovative solutions to problems in the oil and gas industry. Many safety risks exist in oil and gas extraction, and many lives have been lost throughout the history of the industry as a result of these risks. Many of these solutions involve manipulating the surface chemistry of nanoparticles through some sort of pre-treatment or surface coating; others rely on the intrinsic properties of the nanoparticle core material; while others simply rely on the shape and morphology of the nanoparticle. The book presents some cases solved problems, but in most cases, the applicability in solutions has been suggested or shown in the laboratory, but more work remains to be done to bring the solution to fruition.