Traditionally, business-to-business (hereafter, B2B) supply chains were comprised of discrete activities, with each supply chain member “holding one leg of the elephant.” Each member sought to add value for its immediate customer, yet with little regard for “total value effect” of the entire supply chain. The early days of supply chain management focused only on the management of suppliers, often by use of coercion, by the large companies that dominated the chain. Management’s objective was to work with a supplier who could provide low-cost, high-quality, and on-time delivery.