All onsite wastewater treatment systems need a mechanism for treated effluent to be dispersed and returned to the hydrologic cycle. Subsurface dispersal (nonpoint source discharge) is the primary mechanism used for releasing effluent from onsite treatment systems. For most of the 20th century, onsite wastewater options were limited to only septic systems, so the choice for wastewater management was either sewer or septic. One of the unintended adverse impacts of having limited onsite wastewater choices is devaluation, or even condemnation, of tracks of land for development when traditional municipal sewer systems are not accessible and soil and site conditions do not meet the regulatory requirements for septic systems. It is widely believed that the rules governing the operation of septic systems are used as de facto zoning tools, mainly because if land is deemed unsuitable for installing a septic system (i.e., no perc), then no one can build a home or any other structure on it that has potential to generate wastewater.