Pressure-treated wood contains chemicals that may be toxic not only to target organisms (wood degrading fungi and insects), but also to nontarget flora and fauna. Although investigation of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) wood preservatives has demonstrated excellent resistance to leaching, small amounts of Cu, Cr and As are released during the service life of wood products. Because of these concerns, there have been several recent studies of CCA leaching (e.g., Stilwell and Gorny

; Lebow et al.