Two similar life-cycle proposals for CCA-treated wood are presented (Figure 24.1). In both cases, the waste wood is chipped, and the energy resource of the wood is being utilized by thermal treatment. The copper (Cu), chromium (Cr) and arsenic (As) are removed by EDR and are thus available for potential reuse in the production of new CCA. The metals may also be used in other industrial applications or stabilized for safe disposal as an alternative to reuse.