Cells encounter diἀerent situations that require diἀerent proteins. For example, when sugar is sensed, the cell begins to produce proteins that can transport the sugar into the cell and utilize it. When damaged, the cell produces repair proteins. The cell therefore continuously monitors its environment and calculates the amount at which each type of protein is needed. This information-processing function, which determines the rate of production of each protein, is largely carried out by transcription networks.