The earliest ideas of simulating and utilizing quantum systems to do computation, i.e., quantum computation, can be attributed to P. Benioff [3] (1980) and R. Feynman [12] (1982). In his 1980 paper, Benioff introduced a quantum Turing machine model. Deutsch [6, 7] further developed more concrete proposals and introduced the quantum circuit model of computation. Later, Yao [34] showed that the quantum circuit model of computation is equivalent to the quantum Turing machine model.