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# DiVincenzo Criteria

DOI link for DiVincenzo Criteria

DiVincenzo Criteria book

# DiVincenzo Criteria

DOI link for DiVincenzo Criteria

DiVincenzo Criteria book

## ABSTRACT

To begin with, we need a quantum register made of many qubits to store information. Recall that a classical computer also requires memory to store information. The simplest way to realize a qubit physically is to use a two-level quantum system. For example, an electron, a spin 1/2 nucleus or two mutually orthogonal polarization states (horizontal and vertical, for example) of a single photon can be a qubit. We may also employ a two-dimensional subspace, such as the ground state and the ﬁrst excited state, of a multi-dimensional Hilbert space, such as atomic energy levels. In the latter case, special care must be taken to avoid leakage of the state to the other part of the Hilbert space. In any case, the two states are identiﬁed as the basis vectors, |0〉 and |1〉, of the Hilbert space so that a general single qubit state takes the form |ψ〉 = α|0〉 + β|1〉, where |α|2 + |β|2 = 1. A multiqubit state is expanded in terms of the tensor products of these basis vectors. Each qubit must be separately addressable. Moreover it should be scalable up to a large number of qubits. The two-dimensional vector space of a qubit may be extended to be three-dimensional (qutrit) or, more generally, d-dimensional (qudit). A system may be made of several diﬀerent kinds of qubits. Qubits in an ion trap quantum computer, for instance, may be deﬁned as: (1) hyperﬁne/Zeeman sublevels in the electronic ground state of ions (2) a ground state and an excited state of a weakly allowed optical transition and (3) normal mode of ion oscillation. A similar scenario is also proposed for Josephson junction qubits, in which two ﬂux qubits are coupled through a quantized LC circuit. Simultaneous usage of several types of qubits may be the most promising way to achieve a viable quantum computer.