Today, a number of process and controller performance monitoring techniques can provide an inexpensive, algorithmic means to assure and maintain process quality and safety without resorting to costly investments in hardware. These techniques also help maximize hardware utilization and efficiency. This book represents a compilation and overview of such techniques to help the reader gain a healthy understanding of the fundamentals and the current developments and get a glimpse of what the future may hold. This book is intended to be a resource and a reference source for those who are interested in evaluating the potential of these techniques for specific applications, and learn their strengths and limitations.