Quantum theory has formed a cornerstone for modern physics, engineering, and chemistry since the 1920s. It has found significant modern applications in engineering since the development of the semiconductor diode, transistor, and especially the laser in the 1960s. Not until the 1980s did the fabrication and materials growth technology become sufficiently developed to provide the ability to (1) produce quantum well devices (such as quantum well lasers) and (2) engineer the optical and electrical properties of materials (band-gap engineering). One purpose of this chapter is to summarize a small portion of modern quantum theory. The first few sections of this chapter summarize Lagrange and Hamilton’s approach

to classical mechanics. These alternate formulations to Newton’s formulation of classical mechanics allow us to use scalar quantities such as kinetic or potential energy to find the equations of motion. These alternate formulations are so powerful that they can be used to deduce Maxwell’s and other continuous field equations. In fact, the quantum mechanical Hamiltonian comes from the classical one by substituting operators for the classical dynamical variables. The chapter discusses the connection between linear algebra and quantum mechanics

and reviews the basic theory. The discussion of the harmonic oscillator introduces the ladder operators and vacuum state, and prepares the way for the harmonic oscillator theory of the electromagnetic field encounter in quantum optics. The chapter includes quantum mechanical representation theory along with the time dependent perturbation theory. The density operator plays a central role in emission and absorption theory.