The study of light through the centuries has produced a number of theories and experiments. Newton advanced the corpuscular theory, building on the early Greek view of matter composed of atoms. Then Young essentially proved the wave nature of light through the interference experiments. Maxwell provided the firm theoretical basis for the wave nature. During the late 1800s and early 1900s, further experiments showed predictions based on a continuous wave led to the well-known ultraviolet catastrophe. Plank and Einstein originated and developed the notion of the photon as an elementary quantum of propagating electromagnetic (EM) energy. The first half of the 20th century saw the development of the field quantization and the quantum electrodynamics (QED). Feynmann labeled QED as ‘‘the best theory we have’’ to describe the matter-light interaction. The second half of the 20th century witnessed the development of the coherent and squeezed optical states attributable to Glauber and Yuen. The study of light and electromagnetic fields has a long history. This chapter explores the nature of light in terms of quantum optics.