In the Orient many kinds of seeds and nuts have been gathered or cultivated since prehistoric times. Seeds and nuts in the Orient can be categorized into two types based on their ingredients. One type are the oil seeds and nuts, which have a high content of fat and protein, for example, the sweet

almond nut (Prunus


BATSCH), Japanese torreya nut (

Torreya nucifera

SIEB et Zucc.), walnut (

Juglans regia

L. and

Juglans subcordiformis

DODE), hazelnut (

Corylus avellana

L.), pine nut (

Pinus koraiensis

SIEB.et ZUCC), peanut

(Arachis hypogaea

L.), coconut (

Cocos nucifera

L.), hemp seed

(Cannabis sativa

L.), sunflower seed (

Helianthus annuns

L.), sesame seed (

Sesamun indicum

L.), rapeseed (

Brassica napus

L.), perilla seed (

Perilla frutescens

BRITON var. japonica HARA.), pumpkin seed (

Cucubita moschate

DUCH), poppy seed (

Papaver somniferum

L.), etc. The other type includes seeds and nuts with a high content of carbohydrates, for example, the ginkgo nut (

Ginkgo biloba

L.), chestnut (

Castanea mollisima


Castanea crenata

SIEB. et ZUCC), Japanese horse chestnut (

Aesculus turbinate

BLUME), lotus seed (

Nelumbo nucifera

GAERTN), water chestnut (


L. var.