Our focus, in previous chapters, has been upon the management of hazardous waste as it is generated, transported, stored, treated, destroyed, or disposed. The primary objective of hazardous waste management is the handling of the waste in a manner that prevents harm to the public health and the environment. Whatever the degree or numbers of our successes in attaining this goal may be, the fact remains that large numbers of sites have been contaminated with hazardous waste(s). Contaminated sites must be remediated, whether preparatory to transfer of ownership or as a result of regulatory requirements. Similarly, prospective landowners must have reliable mechanisms for evaluating the extent or absence of contamination of potential acquisitions. Individuals and organizations having responsibility for remediating contaminated sites must have generally recognized and accepted procedures for

assessment of site clean-up needs. In this and the following chapter, we will overview techniques and regulatory procedures for accomplishing these tasks.