Restoration of an aquifer that has been contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons and organic compounds is a multifaceted endeavor that requires the remediation specialist first to assess the risk and potential use of the aquifer. If the aquifer is a primary source of drinking water, then every reasonable effort is set forth to develop a remedial strategy to achieve promulgated cleanup or drinking water standards. Where the aquifer is either not capable of producing a reasonable quantity of water or if the water contains other compounds (i.e., elevated dissolved solids, chlorides, salts, etc.) at concentrations that restrict its use, cleanup standards may not be as significant and can be negotiated with the lead agency depending upon the future use of the site, among other factors. This assumes that the source has been mitigated and that what recoverable free-phase NAPL exists has been recovered, regardless of the presence of residual hydrocarbons adsorbed to soil and in the dissolved phase.