The element carbon is well recognized as having some anomalous properties, including its ability to embrace the three major divisions of materials science: polymers, ceramics, and metals. It forms strong interatomic bonds with itself, leading to organic chemistry and polymers; the element in either of its allotropic forms, diamond or graphite, is highly refractory and remains solid above the melting point of most ceramics, while the graphite crystal form has electrical and thermal transport properties comparable with typical metals.