DOI link for Stand-Alone Systems
Stand-Alone Systems book
The stand-alone power system is used primarily in remote areas where utility lines are uneconomical to install due to the terrain, right-of-way difﬁculties, or environmental concerns. Building new transmission lines is expensive even without these constraints. A 230-kV line costs more than $1 million per mile. A stand-alone wind system would be more economical for remote villages that are farther than a couple of miles from the nearest transmission line. The break-even distance for a standalone photovoltaic (PV) system, however, is longer because PV energy is more expensive than wind energy at present.