The use of biomaterials to restore the function of traumatized or degenerated connective tissues and thus improve the quality of life of a patient has become widespread. In the past, implants were designed with insufficient cognizance of biomechanics. Accordingly, the clinical results were not very encouraging. An upsurge of research activities into the mechanics of joints and biomaterials has resulted in better designs with better
performance. The improving long-term success of total joint replacements for the lower limb is testimony to this. As a result, researchers and surgeons have developed and used fixation devices for the joints, including artificial spine discs. A large number of devices are also available for the repair of the bone tissue. This chapter provides an overview of the contemporary scientific work related to the use of biomaterials for the repair of bone (e.g., fracture) and joint replacements ranging from a hip joint to a spine.