Composite materials are solids which contain two or more distinct constituent materials or phases on a scale larger than the atomic. The term “composite” is usually reserved for those materials in which the distinct phases are separated on a scale larger than the atomic, and in which properties such as the elastic modulus are significantly altered in comparison with those of a homogeneous material. Accordingly, reinforced plastics such as fiberglass as well as natural materials such as bone are viewed as composite materials, but alloys such as brass are not. A foam is a composite in which one phase is empty space. Natural biological materials tend to be composites. Natural composites include bone, wood, dentin, cartilage, and skin. Natural foams include lung, cancellous bone, and wood. Natural composites often exhibit hierarchical structures in which particulate, porous, and fibrous structural features are seen on different micro-scales [Katz, 1980; Lakes, 1993]. In this chapter, composite material fundamentals and applications in biomaterials [Park and Lakes, 1988] are explored. Composite materials offer a variety of advantages in comparison with homogeneous materials. These include the ability for the scientist or engineer to exercise considerable control over material properties. There is the potential for stiff, strong, lightweight materials as well as for highly resilient and compliant materials. In biomaterials, it is important that each constituent of the composite be biocompatible. Moreover, the interface between constituents should not be degraded by the body environment. Some applications of composites in biomaterial applications are: (1) dental filling composites, (2) reinforced methyl methacrylate bone cement and ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene, and (3) orthopedic implants with porous surfaces.