There are 11 chapters in this book. Chapter 2 deals with contact angle in surface analysis, whereas Chapter 3 concentrates on x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Originally, XPS and AES were planned as two separate chapters. However, XPS and AES have many things in common, especially in fundamentals and vacuum system. In fact, usually these two systems are physically two in one. Thus, we decided to put these two technologies into one single chapter. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) are both discussed in Chapter 4 because they have a great deal in common, especially in terms of principles. In fact, AFM can be viewed as a rough version of STM. X-ray diffraction (XRD) is an important tool to investigate crystalline structures of materials. Chapter 5 covers X-ray characteristics & generation, lattice planes & Bragg’s Law, powder diffraction, thin film diffraction, texture measurements, etc. Two electron microscopic methods, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are described in Chapters 6 and 7 respectively. The principles of TEM and SEM are given in an easy to read way of understanding. Applications of TEM and SEM are also illustrated. Chapter 8 provides general principles of chromatography, classification of chromatography, separation modes and mechanisms, partition and retention. Particularly, ion exchange chromatography, gel permeation chromatography, gel electrophoresis chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography are described respectively. Finally three methods for quantitative analysis methods are explained with practical examples.