A range of organisms (e.g., microorganisms, invertebrates, and vertebrates) interact with Jerusalem artichoke in the wild and in cultivation. Pollination is primarily by insects, and although propagation is usually through tubers, seed set is important in plant breeding programs. Many pest and disease organisms have been reported on Jerusalem artichoke. Relative to other crops, Jerusalem artichoke has few serious pest and disease problems. However, high yield losses can occur, especially when fungal or bacterial infestations affect the tubers.