Cell resistance is a well-known consequence of cancer chemotherapy, indeed of the overuse of antibiotics, as is increasingly publicized by the media. There was a relevant article on the topic by Sharon Begley in the July 11, 2003, issue of the

Wall Street Journal

. Titled “Cancer Cells Appear To Be Unusually Adept at Dodging Therapies,” the article appeared in the “Marketplace” section under the heading “Science Journal.” Among the authorities cited is molecular biologist Robert Weinberg of the Whitehead Institute in Cambridge, Massachusetts, who notes the evasive maneuvers of cancer cells, which unfortunately can activate alternative pathways to circumvent a particular therapy. Thus, Lawrence Loeb of the University of Washington, Seattle, addresses genetic instability, whereby cancer cells undergo thousands of random mutations, even in the early stages, some of which will be resistant to standard chemotherapy. And, significantly, oncologist Roy Herbst of the M.D. Anderson Cancer Center in Houston states that for a therapy to be effective, it must target a particular cancer cell pathway whereby “that pathway has to be one of the main ones driving that abnormal cell.”