While the ability to identify is inherent, an understanding of the process and the ability to describe it is not. This has resulted in a hodgepodge of doctrine that is far removed from the truth. Generally, these doctrines require a certain leap of faith and many of the rules have no supporting rationale. Over the years, as flaws developed, new arbitrary doctrines were enacted to patch the defects. Eventually, hyperbole without substance exists and one must either modernize or put one’s head in the sand. A few years ago a giant step was taken toward modernization of the friction ridge identification science.