ABSTRACT

A Typology of Police Practices ........................................................... 481 14.3 Evaluating the Evidence ...................................................................... 484 14.4 What Works in Policing Crime, Disorder, and Fear of Crime......... 485

14.4.1 Proposition 1 ........................................................................... 485 14.4.1.1 Increasing the Size of Police Agencies .................... 485 14.4.1.2 Random Patrol across All Parts of the

Community............................................................... 486 14.4.1.3 Rapid Response to Calls for Service ....................... 486 14.4.1.4 Generally Applied Intensive Enforcement and

Arrests ....................................................................... 486 14.4.2 Proposition 2 ........................................................................... 487 14.4.3 Proposition 3 ........................................................................... 489

14.4.3.1 Police Crackdowns ................................................... 489 14.4.3.2 Hot Spots Policing.................................................... 489 14.4.3.3 Focusing on Repeat Offenders ................................ 490

14.4.4 Proposition 4 ........................................................................... 490 14.5 Discussion ............................................................................................ 491 14.6 Conclusions.......................................................................................... 494 References ...................................................................................................... 495

The decade of the 1990s was one of the most innovative periods in American policing. Such approaches as community policing, problem-oriented policing, hot spots policing, and broken windows policing either emerged in the 1990s or came to be widely adopted by police agencies at that time. The changes in American policing were dramatic. From an institution known for its conservatism and resistance to change, policing suddenly stood out as a leader in criminal justice innovation. This new openness to innovation and widespread experimentation in new practices were part of a renewed confidence in American policing that could be found not only among police professionals but also among scholars and the general public. Although there is much debate over what caused the crime drop of the 1990s, many police executives, police scholars, and laypeople looked to new policing practices as a primary explanation (Bratton 1998a; Eck and MaGuire 2000; Kelling and Sousa 2001).