Some of the more common sites that require extensive environmental sampling programs include abandoned or operating chemical plants, oil refi neries, fuel storage and transfer stations (including gas stations), mine sites, landfi lls, military installations, nuclear or chemical weapon production and storage facilities, manufacturing facilities, and facilities associated with nuclear reactors. The primary objectives of performing remedial investigations at these types of sites often include collecting adequate data to

The objective of this chapter is to provide the reader with guidance on how to design cost-effective sampling programs for these types of sites that are both comprehensive and defensible. This guidance emphasizes the use of the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Data Quality Objectives (DQO) process (EPA 2006a) to assist in the development of defensible sampling programs that meet all the sampling objectives.