Modern technology offers powerful tools to stimulate a range of benefi ts for society, in addition to economic development. However, technological progress in the broadest sense has always been associated with hazards and risks . Traditionally, risk has been defi ned from a technical perspective, namely the product of the probability and consequences of an adverse event. In this case, the adverse event would be exposure to EM fi elds. These technical assessments are portrayed as representing the actual risks. However, this approach ignores essential social, economic, and cultural dimensions of risk assessment and management. A broader set of criteria must be used to obtain an accurate representation of risk.