Much eort has traditionally been directed to the development of organic synthesis methods for the production of valuable chemicals and small molecule pharmaceuticals. However, despite the signicant achievements in this eld many compounds remain dicult to be synthesized through such means. Advances in enzyme and biochemical pathway engineering have pushed biological synthesis strategies as alternate and viable options to chemical synthesis for certain compounds. Cellular biosynthesis strategies have several advantages over traditional chemical synthesis strategies in that the former is oen

conducted under less harsh conditions, thereby enabling “green” synthesis strategies that are associated with the production of fewer toxic byproducts. In addition, cellular biosynthesis takes advantage of the cell’s natural ability to replenish enzymes and cofactors and to provide precursors from oen inexpensive and renewable starting materials.