ABSTRACT

Chemical sand control has been carried out for many years with resins or epoxy, which harden unconsolidated sand. Typical systems are based on bisphenol A-epichlorohydrin resin, polyepoxide resin, polyester resin, phenol-aldehyde resin, urea-aldehyde resin, furan resin, urethane resin, and glycidyl ethers.1 If the resin comprises bisphenol A-epichlorohydrin polymer, a preferred curing agent is 4,4-methylenedianiline. If the resin comprises a polyurethane, the curing agent is preferably a diisocyanate. The furan resin system is one of the most common: the key chemical is furfuryl alcohol and does not require a curing agent, as it is selfpolymerizing in the presence of acid catalysts2-3 (Figure 6.1). These systems are designed to maintain sufficient permeability of the formation to allow production. Self-diverting resin-based sand consolidation fluids have been claimed that allow a greater interval to be treated than conventional resin treatments.4 Most resin-based chemicals are not considered to be very environmentally friendly.