Modern opt ical c omponents a re t ypically p recisely m achined a nd h ighly opt imized i n t heir p erformance for a robust and durable operation. is o en comes at the expense of their ability to tune and adapt-an a sset t hat would b e very b ene cial for v arious appl ications. E xamples of s uch appl ication areas include dynamic imaging and displays, scanning, optical communications, sensing, spectroscopy, health care and life sciences, lab-on-a-chip technology, and optical information processing.