Chip-based opto uidics has been made possible by the micro-and nanofabrication techniques developed for semiconductors by the microelectronics industry. e rst semiconductor devices consisted of semiconductor slabs and connecting metal wires, put together one at a t ime. Semiconductor chips, as we now know them, originated when inventors at Fairchild Semiconductor formed multiple transistors simultaneously on a at piece of silicon. ese transistors were linked together with metal lines to form an “integrated circuit,” and the modern electronic era was born (Riordan 2007).