In other words, this did not just happen as a matter of course. In each case, the local political leadership worked with their business communities and their residential communities as well as institutional partners in the community to correct the situations. The best minds looked forward rather than backward. In each case study, they built on what remained of the old economy while remaining focused on what was possible in the future. And, in each case, the reversals of fortunes required time and patience. The causes will be examined for the downturns, and the local reactions and results will be evaluated.