This chapter provides an overview and a summary of recent, salient results found about the onset and (weakly) non-linear evolution of thermoconvective patterns and (interfacial and surface) waves due to surface tension gradients (Marangoni effect) in Bénard layers. First, results about hexagonal and other convective patterns are discussed. Then, recent results about oscillatory convection and surface waves, both transverse, capillarygravity waves, and longitudinal, dilational waves are summarized following a detailed heuristic analysis of the corresponding underlying thermo-hydrodynamic problems. A discussion is also provided about recent theoretical and experimental findings on nonlinear waves and (dissipative) solitons. Finally, for a multilayer liquid structure, recently reported results about steady and oscillatory instabilities are discussed. As one of the key parameters used in most studies is the Galileo number, G, the M G R of the findings is eventually self-explanatory.