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# Notation

DOI link for Notation

Notation book

# Notation

DOI link for Notation

Notation book

## ABSTRACT

An cross-sectional area of a cable element Af cross-sectional area of a pile element Csf cohesive strength of the shear coupling spring in a pile

element Cnf maximum compressive strength of the normal

coupling spring in a pile element c′ effective cohesion c′1 effective cohesion of the state boundary surface on the

dry side of the critical state line c′2 effective cohesion of the collapse surface d outside diameter of a cable element Df mass density of a pile element e voids ratio E Young’s modulus of soil Ef Young’s modulus of a pile element En Young’s modulus of a cable element Fsf maximum shear force of the shear coupling spring in a

pile element Fsn maximum shear force of the shear coupling spring in a

cable element G shear modulus of soil If moment of inertia of a pile element K bulk modulus of soil Ksn stiffness of the shear coupling spring in a cable element Ksf stiffness of the shear coupling spring in a pile element Knf stiffness of the normal coupling spring in a pile L length of a cable element M stress ratio q/p′ at critical state Mcol inclination of the collapse surface in the q−p′ plane Ms gradient of the critical state hyperline in the

q−p plane

Ns intercept of isotropic normal compression hyperline in plane of v− log p

n porosity of soil p net mean stress pref reference pressure 100 kPa p′ mean effective stress ′1+ ′2+ ′3/3 p′cs mean effective stress at critical state q deviator stress ′1− ′3 qav available deviator stress qcs deviator stress at critical state qmax maximum deviator stress qmob mobilized deviator stress q1 mobilized deviator stress when the effective stress path

intercepts the collapse surface Sr degree of saturation s matric suction ua−uw T tensile strength of soil Tnf maximum tensile force of a pile element in normal

direction u pore pressure uw pore water pressure ua pore air pressure v specific volume Yn yield force of a cable element s total shear strain smax shear strain at minimum deviator stress during

strain-softening ′ effective friction angle of soil ′1 effective friction angle of the state boundary on the

dry side of the critical state line ′2 effective friction angle of the collapse surface sf frictional resistance of the shear coupling spring in a

pile element intercept of the critical state line in e− ln p′ plane s intercept of critical state hyperline in v− log p plane slope of the critical state line in e− ln p′ plane s slope of critical state hyperline in v− log p plane s intercept of critical state hyperline in q−p plane Poisson’s ratio d dry density of soil total normal stress ′ effective normal stress −u 1 total major principal stress

2 total intermediate principal stress 3 total minor principal stress shear stress f shear strength (shear stress at failure) angle of dilation 1 angle of dilation of the state boundary surface on the

dry side of the critical state line 2 angle of dilation of the collapse surface s slope of the critical state hyperline in v− log p plane