I. TELLING A STORY Every writing effort needs to tell a "story," whether that story is how a certain combination of chemicals can form a stronger bonding agent or how a certain sequence of social factors can cause a political revolution. The writer's story starts with an exposition of the intellectual problem. It has a beginning, middle, and end. The writer must make a convincing case that the problem is well identified' significant, and in need of research. The writer must avoid "topic shift," in which the focus set forth at the beginning differs from the focus of conclusions at the end. Usually the writer will want to relate the selected intellectual problem to social, economic, political, psychological, moral, or other problems that may be aided in their solution by the writer's research findings. Generalizations that summarize research findings are made concrete through judicious use of illustrative examples. The good writer never forgets that a central purpose of all writing is to motivate the interest of the reader.