I. CONCEPTUALIZING IN THE NATURAL SCIENCES The natural science model is the leading framework for empirical study, not only in the natural sciences but also in the social sciences as well (see Behling, 1980). Research advances in the natural sciences can come about in several ways, as noted by Ticeand Slavens (1983: 418). Logical positivists believed scientific advance occurred through discrete verifications of phenomena. Karl Popper preferred instead to emphasize the centrality to science of discrete falsifications of phenomena, believing nothing could be affirmatively verified, only ruled inconsistent with observed data. Thomas Kuhn, in contrast, emphasized the role of new paradigms in creating scientific revolution, transcending discrete empirical studies. Polanyi, arguing with Kuhn, saw the progress of science lying in growing consensus rather than revolution.