Michael Faraday's work on electromagnetic induction (see Chapter 4) provided the scientific basis for three electrical machines: the dynamo (or generator), the electric motor and the transformer. The development of these machines and the use of electricity have had profound effects on humanity's work, leisure and communications. The earliest use of electricity was in lighting, introduced into lighthouses in the 1850s, and communications, through the electric telegraph. However, the decisive advance came in 1870 when the Belgian inventor, Z. T. Gramme, built the first powerful electrical generator. This produced enough reliable electricity to light the Gare du Nord in Paris. By 1882 electrical power stations had been set up in London and New York and the means for transporting electricity from the power station to domestic and industrial users through electrical cables had also been successfully developed.