There are three major stages in a quantitative determination: first, the preparation of a specimen from the sample submitted for analysis; second, the excitation of a suitable emission line from each element to be analyzed and the measurement of its intensity; and third, the conversion of the measured intensity into elemental concentration. In Chap. 7 (Fig. 7 .1), these steps were indicated along with the more important procedures that are employed, depending upon the original form of the sample and special requirements in measuring the x-ray intensity.