The most complex case is the analysis of all or most of the clements in a sample, about which little or nothing is known. In this case a full qualitative analysis would

Table 13.1 Quantitative Procedures Employed in X-ray Fluorescence Analysis

Single element Internal standardization Standard addition Use of scattered source radiation

Multiple element Type standardization Use of influence coefficients Fundamental parameter techniques

be required before any attempt is made to quantitate the matrix elements. Once the qualitative composition of the sample is known, again, one of three general techniques is typically applied:

Use of type standardization Use of an influence coefficient method Use of a fundamental parameter technique

Both the influence coefficient and fundamental parameter technique require a computer for their application.