## ABSTRACT

LIGHT-SCATTERING DETECTORS 277 A. Light-Scattering Principles 279 B. Aerosol Generation and Transport 280 C. Dispersion in Aerosol Systems 284

III. EVAPORATIVE LIGHT-SCATTERING DETECTION 286 N. CONDENSATION NUCLEATION LIGHT-SCATTERING

DETECTION 292 A. Fundamental Principles of Condensation Nucleation 294 B. Quantitation by Concentration-Dependent Particle

Size Effects 297 C. Quantitation by ES-CPC (Macromolecule Counting) 307

V. CONCLUSIONS AND PERSPECTIVE 309 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 311 REFERENCES 311

I. INTRODUCTION

An integral part of a high-performance separation system is the detector, which provides response in the presence of the analyte that differs from that of the mobile phase. Among various classifications, these detectors can be considered universal, if response is provided for essentially any analyte, or selective, if response occurs for only a selected class of compounds. Selective detectors can simplify complex chromatograms if only selected species are of interest; however, universal detectors have the advantage of providing a comprehensive depiction of the substances eluting from the column. For example, with gas chromatography (GC), flame ionization detectors (FIDs) provide nearly universal response with high sensitivity and are widely used.