In the mind of many wine buffs, Burgundy comes down to two culti- vars: pinot noir for red wines, chardonnay for white wines. It wasn’t 233always like that in the course of history. Admittedly, since our ancestors first planted vines, winegrowers and consumers have always recognized that some cultivars gave better wines than others but documents written between 1000 and 1500 reveal the names of no more than 15 different varieties. In the 16th century, the novelist Rabelais and the agronomist Olivier de Serres mentioned some hitherto unknown grape varieties. In the 19th century, agronomists listed 60 more new cultivars. In their quest for quality, the powers that be have always endeavored to eliminate/over productive cultivars*. Thus, until the implementation of the Controlled Appellations law in 1935, Burgundy was the scene of fierce confrontations between “noble” and “vulgar” cultivars. Nevertheless, varieties deemed undesirable in Burgundy found a promised land in other regions to which they brought fame and fortune.