Environmental destructions have occurred worldwide and have been a major concern to living entities. To prevent or escape them, reduction of public pollution problems and temperature increases, and maintenance of the present con­ ditions are essential. Thus, the biodiversities directly con­ nected with these problems have been paid attention to, discussed, and analyzed repeatedly. Particularly, some disap­ pearing species of higher plants and animals have routinely been news sources, but microorganisms including fungi have been neglected, although their significance has been empha­ sized in relation to degradation of natural resources, as well as to their movement and relocation. Biodiversity problems include qualitative and quantitative aspects and their influ­ ences to our life. Qualitatively it is essential to know as many fungal species as possible. But recent molecular techniques have suggested numerous unknown, unidentified microor­ ganisms may be detected or isolated from nature.