The importance of plant morphology to the microscopic identification of herbal ingredients lies in the ability to identify differences in plant anatomy that are characteristic of different plant parts. This section describes the basics of plant morphology so that readers can understand the terminology used in the Botanical Microscopy Atlas in this book. This chapter also provides the foundation for the chapters that follow, building from the basic plant structures, their cell types and cell contents, and the various tissues made up of those cells to develop a microscopic evaluation. At the end of this chapter, Table 7.4 provides a synopsis of the various cell types, their location, and primary functions.