Traceability and standardization enable results to be compared nationally and internationally using common units. Failure to ensure that the results of a measurement or experiment conform to a standard are not in itself serious. It may be, for example, that a particular rm is investigating the function of a part it makes, so it does some test experiments. The measurement system may be needed to determine changes which occur during the experiment. It may not be necessary to communicate such results to the outside world and often in a proprietary situation not even desirable. Under these conditions all that is required is that the system within the rm is consistent, not necessarily traceable to national or international standards. However, the day of the family company working in isolation is over. Consequently, results have to be compared and instruments have to be veried often nationality and sometimes internationally according to mutually acceptable rules. Easily the safest way to do this is to relate all measurements to the international system of units and procedures. Then there is no doubt and no ambiguity. The problem is that it can introduce extra costs because of the need for training and the need to buy in test equipment. However, there can be no question that in the long term this is the most cost-effective way to proceed.