With increased longevity, the number of older drivers at risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), and stroke is increasing. šese conditions impair perception, cognition and motor function, which can reduce driver performance and

increase the risk of errors that lead to crashes. Table 48.1, 48.3, and 48.4 show our approach to testing cognitive, visual, and motor testing and the comparisons of drivers with AD or PD to elderly controls. A clinician may be able to identify potentially hazardous drivers, but clinical judgment may fail, particularly in drivers with mild cognitive decline (Ott et al., 2005). Type and

degree of cognitive, visual, and motor impairments increase the accuracy of predictions of driving skills in older drivers with medical disorders (Fitten et al., 1995) and can be combined with evidence from state driving records and road tests including those administered in instrumented vehicles. Driving simulators provide an ideal platform for assessing the driving ability of drivers with PD, AD, and stroke. šere is preliminary evidence to suggest that drivers with stroke can bene¨t from a rehabilitation program using simulator training (Akinwuntan et al., 2006).