At the enterprise level, an approach to greening data centers and networks is to virtualize ICT (Information and Communications Technology) functions. The advantages of such an approach include the following:

Increased utilization (and thus increased efficiency) of servers, storage, and ◾ other computing devices due to traffic aggregation Increased energy savings due to consolidations and higher intrinsic efficien-◾ cies related to economies of scale Improved application of Best Practices because large Network (“Cloud”)- ◾ based Computing centers are better able to research and apply best-in-class design principles


The specific approaches that are applicable to these initiatives are as follows (in somewhat increasing level of virtualization):

1. A transition from dedicated traditional time division-multiplexing (TDM) network connectivity to an all-IP packet-based connectivity for carrier networks, including the use of voice and video compression technologies (e.g., IP-based 3/4G networks, VoIP carrier services, IPTV services), as well as for enterprise networks (e.g., use of VPNs [Virtual Private Networks]; use of packet services-such as MPLS [MultiProtocol Label Switching]—for the intranet, the wide area network, and for the extranet; use of corporate VoIP; etc.).