What are the main challenges facing scienti€c research in the immediate future? Until now, we have been considering topics such as the training that a scientist needs to undergo for a successful career, the attributes that need to be developed, and the way the scienti€c method should be applied. The focus has been on the individual. In this chapter, I would like to focus more generally on what is needed for scienti€c research to continue to ¤ourish and contribute positively to human progress. Of course, the way science evolves is dependent on the cumulative efforts of individuals, both active scientists and the nonscientists who in¤uence policies.