Modern societies face many challenges, including growing populations, increased demands for food, clothing, housing, consumer goods, and the concomitant raw materials required to produce all of these. Additionally, there is a growing need for energy, which is most easily met by use of fossil fuels (e.g., coal, natural gas, and petroleum). In 2008, the overall U.S. demand for energy was 99.3 × 1015 Btu (1.05 × 1014 MJ); 84% of this was supplied by fossil sources (U.S. EIA, 2009). Transportation fuels accounted for 28% of all energy consumed during this time, and nearly 97% of this came from fossil sources. Domestic production of crude oil was 4.96 million barrels per day, whereas imports were 9.76 million barrels per day (nearly two-thirds of the total U.S. demand) (U.S. EIA, 2009). Many argue that this scenario is not sustainable in the long term, for a variety of reasons (such as the need for energy independence and global warming), and other alternatives are needed.